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Changing from an Olympic City to a World City

Changing from an Olympic City to a World City

Subject research unit: Renmin University of China, Humanistic Beijing Research Center, Research Group
Beijing Social Sciences Association
Principal of Research Group: Feng Huiling
Members: Hao Lixin, Gan Chunsong, Xu Shangkun, Lu Yilong, Yang Hongshan

The success of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games showed great historic and realistic value for Beijing, which is currently in a period of developing new strategic opportunities. The Beijing Olympic Games sufficiently demonstrated the charm and character of the Chinese civilization, greatly enhanced the level of internationalization and modernization in Beijing’s urban construction, and further strengthened its popularity and reputation while bringing about a far-reaching and broad influence in the world. Furthermore, it was an important milestone in the course of Beijing’s urban development, which pushed all-around high-level developments in culture, economy and society, and marked Beijing’s entrance into a brand new stage of urban development. Based on absorbing the advanced Olympic concepts, the Beijing Municipal Party Committee put forward the developmental theme “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing and Green Beijing” with the objectives of constructing a world city with Chinese characteristics, continuously raising Beijing’s position and role in the family of global cities, and uninterruptedly strengthening its comprehensive expansion and leading capacity in the world economy, culture and politics. It is of great strategic significance to raise the objective of constructing a world city with Chinese characteristics, which is not only an intrinsic requirement for Beijing to seek initiative and voice in long-term urban development, but an important embodiment and symbol of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
The success of the Beijing Olympic Games has left behind a rich Olympic heritage, which provides significant strategic value for Beijing to utilize in order to push new rounds of high-level scientific development, and strive for high-level international urban development.A solid foundation has been laid and abundant resources have been accumulated for use in the building of a world city with Chinese characteristics. At the current stage of urban development, the core tasks for Beijing are to systemically learn from the experiences of successfully hosting the Olympic Games, to uncover and harness the brilliant Olympic heritage, and to advance construction, based on the theme of “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing, and Green Beijing”, to a higher level, so as to build Beijing into a world city with Chinese characteristics.
If we want to successfully achieve the transition of Beijing from an Olympic city to a world city, we should do more than absorbing the experiences and concrete forms of each event that was presented during the Olympic Games in order to carefully plan and manage the glorious Olympic heritage, develop the spirit of the city that was triggered and built during the Games, and further enrich the concept and soul of Beijing’s urban development by providing the necessary supports. On the basis of the above understandings, we should first systemically summarize the brilliant Olympic heritage and analyze its basic values while constructing Beijing into a world city. We should discuss how to strengthen the management and planning of the brilliant Olympic heritage and figure out a way for Beijing to change from an Olympic city to a world city. Lastly, we should logically organize the concepts of the Olympic city, “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing, and Green Beijing”, and the world city, and theoretically discuss the great significance of the “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing, and Green Beijing” in Beijing’s transformation from an Olympic city to a world city.
I. Brilliant Olympic Heritage: Foundation and Source for the Development of a World City
The Olympic heritage is the strength and foundation for Beijing’s urban development. Therefore, it is of great significance to learn from and draw on the Olympic heritage in an effort to build Beijing into a world city.
In order to comprehensively consider the special value and meaning of the Olympic heritage to the construction of Beijing into a world city with Chinese characteristic, we can, in our opinion, divide the Olympic heritage into categories of soft and hard heritages.
(I) Soft Heritage
As an important part of a country or city’s comprehensive abilities, soft power refers to the cultural attraction, appeal of its values, image, and international reach. Just as Joseph Nye said, “Soft and hard power are equally important, but in the information era, soft power is more prominent than ever before”. The 2008 Olympic Games has left an abundance of soft heritage in Beijing and has laid a solid foundation in cultural soft power for its urban construction, both in terms of the practice of the three concepts of urban development, “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing, Green Beijing”, and the great promotion of urban civilization and the level of internationalization.
1. Concepts for Urban Development
The three concepts, “Green Olympics, High-tech Olympics and Humanistic Olympics”, raised during the Beijing Olympic Games made a unique contribution to the Olympics and became a precious piece of historic, Olympic cultural legacy. More importantly, by actively practicing the three concepts, Beijing greatly enhanced the internationalization and modernization levels of its urban construction and further strengthened comprehensive urban competition. The green Olympics reflected the developments in the direction of human lifestyle and the transformation of the economic growth pattern. Driven by the green Olympic concept, Beijing has established the concept and pattern of environmentally friendly and cyclic economy, the environmental protection ideas and green lifestyles have enjoyed popular support and the habitat environment, air quality, and traffic situations have been greatly improved. More importantly, the green idea has become a basic concept and pattern in urban development and lifestyles, and will certainly push forward the more profound and everlasting environmental protection and green living campaigns in Beijing. In the light of technology, advocated by the high-tech Olympics, urban development has moved faster, better, higher, and has become the basic force for urban construction and economic development. High-tech Olympic technology has effectively boosted the Beijing urban development to a higher level. Scientific power will also become a driving force for future development and will make a contribution to the construction of Beijing into a world city. The Humanistic Olympics stress human core-values, demonstrates the principal position of people, strengthens humanistic care, and reflects the common values seen in contemporary society. Through its bidding to hold the Olympic Games, Beijing has made outstanding achievements in terms of the spreading of Olympic values and concepts, the attitudes and behaviors of healthy living, volunteer services, caring for the handicapped, the promotion of the quality of citizens, the protection of city culture, and the construction of a harmonious and livable city, etc. Meanwhile, the Olympics are necessary, as a carrier, in building a vast platform for the fusion and mutual benefit of the national cultures of the world. A vivid reflection of Beijing’s humanistic spirits and core concepts regarding urban development displays a harmony of learning from others' forte, being inclusive, helping each other and being complementary, contact with multiple cultures, and prosperity.
The three concepts raised in the Olympic Games collectively reflect the values and ideals widely accepted in the world and provides new direction leading towards the future of urban development, which has not only made great contributions to the success of the Olympic Games, but are worth becoming the core concept and cultural foundation for all urban development. Based on the three concepts, while sufficiently absorbing the advanced Olympic concepts and successful experiences, Beijing further enriches, improves and develops the three concepts of “Humanistic, high-tech, and green” that it has put forward while beginning to implement the development strategy of “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing, and Green Beijing” which pushes the capital city’s economic and social development to a higher standard. The successful transformation from “Humanistic, high-tech, and green” Olympics to “Humanistic, high-tech, and green” Beijing vividly demonstrates the inherent tie between brilliant Olympic heritage and the urban development of Beijing and will become a driving force and ideal foothold for the construction of a world city.
2. Urban Civilization Level
“Civilization” is a word that can be interpreted in many ways. As to the civilization level of a city, civilization refers to ideological and ethical standards, the quality of physical and psychological health of residents, and the degree of openness and inclusiveness of the city. The Beijing Olympic Games greatly enhanced the civilization level of its urban development, which was shown as follows:
(1) Residents’ Ideological and Ethical Standards
As President Hu Jintao said, “Whether a society is harmonious or not, and whether a country maintains prolonged stability or not depends on the ideological and ethical standards of all members of the society.” The Beijing Olympic Games initiated an extensive campaign to improve the ideological and ethical standards of residents and organized thorough and wide-spread activities “Welcoming the Olympic Games, stressing civilization, and fostering new practices”. Thus, it effectively push spiritual civilization in the capital city, enhanced the civilization quality of residents and the modern civilization of society, and was an important measure in the promotion of social harmony and building a civilized city. Through activities that spread and popularized civilized practices, volunteer service projects, civilized projects at competition fields, quality service campaigns, and action plans for the improved civilization quality of tourists, the public awareness and civilization degree of Beijing residents were improved greatly. The English popularization rate and standards of public services, as well as the internationalization level of Beijing, were also improved. In various campaigns, such as etiquette, environment, order, service, and sightseeing, great achievements were made and a civilized national image, which should be owned by an ancient state honoring etiquette and elegance, was shaped for the world, reflecting both the city and country’s degree of openness, inclusiveness, community, honesty, sincerity, hospitality, friendliness, steadfastness, and confidence, and writing a new chapter showing that as Beijing welcomes the world, the world approaches Beijing.
On the other hand, volunteer services reflect the ethical standards of a city. The Beijing Olympic Games drove the largest Olympic volunteer movement in the world and stimulated residents to make earnest efforts to promote the public good and an awareness of participation. During the Olympic Games, more than one million people filed the volunteer application and 100,000 of those people were selected as volunteers to join the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. There were 100,000 event volunteers, 400,000 city volunteers and one million social volunteers participating in information consultation, language translation, order protection, advocating civilization, beautifying the environment, helping those in need, and patrolling the community all at the same time, which effectively promoted the success, safety and efficiency of the Olympic Games. Meanwhile, volunteer communication and campaigns on a large scale vigorously upheld the ideal of social benefit, advocated by the volunteer movement, and greatly enhanced the public’s recognition of the volunteer spirit that helped to further arouse the public's sense of participation and dedication. Social values, such as mutual help, care, participation and dedication, initiated by the volunteer spirit, effectively promoted the civilization level of the city. Inspired and driven by the volunteer spirit, the public’s service awareness, dedication, spirit, and social/moral awareness were boosted remarkably. Whether in banks, department stores, or at a bus stop, people lined up conscientiously, preserved the order, and showed good manners. The public awareness and spirit of participation aroused by the Olympic volunteer activities have laid a better public foundation for the future development of Beijing. The management and organization of large volunteer teams also provided valuable experience for its development and urban construction.
(2) Physical and Psychological Health Quality of Residents
Health quality is a comprehensive measure for physical and psychological health, good social adaption and moral health. Residents’ health quality reflects the civilization level of a city. The Beijing Olympic Games disseminated the sports and Olympic value to 1/5 of the world population through the education of Olympic values and left behind an abundant educational heritage in China, especially to Beijing. In Beijing, over 2 million teachers and students from 2,200 schools participated in the Olympic education practice that targeted 400 million youngsters across the country. The practice, through the use of practical social activities, disseminated and spread the Olympic Games on the largest scale in history and extended from schools, to families and communities. Through participation, experience, and exchange in various forms, education ranging from modern health and morals, to Olympic and international understanding, to the global environment, aroused youngsters’ sense of responsibility in paying attention to the relationships between men, man and nature, and man and society.They obtained the important life experiences of perceiving, understanding and respecting differences, learned to treat the issues of their own country and the world globally, and thought of the relationships between life, society and nature from a global perspective. Therefore, they broadened their global vision, deepened their understanding of national culture, and enhanced their respect for multiple world cultures. By establishing the concepts of sports and participation in sports, and by studying various sports skills, their physique and psychology developed harmoniously. The entrepreneurial spirit of faster, higher and stronger advocated by the Olympics inspires the will and courage of young people to continuously conquer their limits and become better. The concepts of equality for all, friendship, cooperation, and world peace, adhered to by the Olympics at all times, will also build the attitude of active lifestyles for the youth and lay a foundation for them to become good modern citizens.
On another note, the health awareness and actions of residents that were promoted in varied ways during the Beijing Olympic Games, have also left behind a wealth of heritage in Beijing. The health heritage is not only a unique heritage dedicated by the Beijing Olympic Games to the Olympic Movement, but brings about health to millions of residents and opens up a campaign of healthy living for them. By means of large-scale health education activities during the Olympic Games, a vast number of residents were encouraged to participate in sports, healthy life concepts were promoted, their health was enhanced, and a healthy lifestyle was cultivated. Since 2006, “Healthy Olympics and healthy Beijing — a health movement for all” conducted in Beijing has promoted healthy lifestyles, and enhanced the health awareness of all the people, through a series of special health education events and health concepts. The concept of “sports make me happy and healthy” has enjoyed popular support. During the movement, five million booklets regarding healthy lifestyles were distributed to Beijing residents and for the purpose of controlling intake of salt and oil, 6.5 million spoons and 5.1 million cups were given out free of charge.The 8th of August, every year, was fixed as National Fitness Day.Smoke control actions were launched in 40,000 restaurants, no-smoking marks were posted in 66,000 taxis, and special programs were prepared in large newspapers and journals, TV and radio to vigorously spread health concepts. Meanwhile, the construction of stadiums, gyms and facilities for all was strengthened. In 2007, the number of stadiums and gyms in Beijing was 4.45 times that of 1995. The area of comprehensive service facilities for the disabled grew by 10 times over that recorded in 1999. Through intense propaganda and the provision of competition fields, the number who participated in sports soared in recent years. In the course of bidding, preparing, and holding the Olympic Games, the urban health environment, hygiene, and medical facilities were improved remarkably, as did the health awareness and behaviors of residents in Beijing. This abundant health heritage will also provide precious experience and the basis for health and hygiene developments in Beijing in the post-Olympic era.
(3) Openness and Inclusiveness of the City
The Chinese government and the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG) issued the Rules on Reporters in China during the Beijing Olympic Games and the Preparation Thereof and the Service Guide for Foreign Reporters in China during the Beijing Olympic Games and the Preparation Thereof. News-gathering was available to all overseas media and the internet was unblocked and fast, which ensured free interview of foreign reporters in China and brought about the right of freedom of registered media in news-gathering. According to the international practice, BOCOG appointed several parks as demonstration areas in Beijing during the Games. These measures not only fulfilled the solemn promises made by the Beijing Olympic Games to the international community, but greatly enhanced the degree of openness, the internationalization level of urban development, and vigorously promoted exchange and communication between Beijing and the international community. The openness during the preparation of the Games guaranteed its success and gave a vivid reflection of its openness; meanwhile, it is a major legacy that China can use to hold major events and construct cities.
The Chinese are proud of their culture, inclusive of everything. Inclusiveness and open-mindedness is the embodiment of a city’s being open-minded and is a reflection of a civilized city. The inclusiveness and open-mindedness of Beijing were thoroughly shown during the Olympic Games. When watching matches, the Chinese audiences showed good presence and broad minds. They not only cheered Chinese sportsmen, but also offered their clapping to sportsmen form other countries. On the other hand, when facing criticism and barriers, with ulterior motives from some Western societies, Beijing always remained calm and gained positive response from the international community. As a large country, China showed a strong inclusive heart. In regards to disturbances, China did not antagonize or give tit for tat, but rather focused on the Olympic Games in order to present a real China. Through bidding for and holding the Olympic Games, Beijing has become more inclusive and open-minded and presents a more mature and confident image by embracing varied cultures.
Taking the 2008 Olympic Games as an opportunity, Beijing vigorously publicized the city image, presented a city with long history, limitless creativity, hospitality, civilization and openness to athletes, visitors, business elites, and officials from all over the world, and accumulated huge city brand assets. Meanwhile, with effective and strict Olympic organization, a wonderful opening ceremony, hospitable and professional volunteers, friendly and rational spectator etiquette, as well as the implementation of “people, high-tech and green” concepts, China collectively showed the brilliance of Chinese civilization, the great achievements and new look in the thirty years since the reform, and that it has opened up to the world. By virtue of various media and specialized promotion organizations, “new Beijing, new Olympic Games”, “Chinese seal, dancing Beijing” and “Beijing presence" spread to the world through the Olympic Games and absorbed the attention of the world. The Beijing city image and city brand were improved greatly, aswere the cultural soft power and internationalization level of Beijing.
Thanks to the Olympic Games, Beijing has become more open, confident, inclusive and open-minded. The capital city also won wide acclaim from the world, and its cultural soft power and internationalization level have been further enhanced. These achievements have accumulated rich and valuable city brand experience for the future urban development of Beijing and also laid an indispensable foundation for its construction into a world city.
3. Urban Cultural Charm
Through the preparation and hosting of the Olympic Games, Beijing further deepened the reform of the cultural administrative system in various forms, thereby protecting historical and cultural heritages. The public service system of culture is being continuously improved and each cultural undertaking has developed further. Meanwhile, the cultural and creative industry is growing stronger and stronger, the industrial development policies and financing service system continue to be improved, the cultural market is more prosperous and ordered, the cultural characteristic is fresher, and the cultural influence is more prominent. It laid a solid foundation for the construction of a world city with Chinese characteristics.
(1) Cultural Exchange Center
Driven by the effects of great publicity, Beijing has sped up its pace to that of international cultural metropolises, gradually becoming a center for international cultural exchanges, and has made great achievements in terms of international cultural exchanges, city arts, and cultural creativity. As a capital with long historic and cultural traditions, Beijing has been battling for a position in international exchange and foreign cultural trade. It is at the intersections of traditional culture and modern civilization, Chinese culture and world cultures, so multicultural exchange and integration is also a unique cultural feature. Beijing both shoulders the tasks of foreign exchange and acting as a window. It represents the highest level of foreign exchanges. While the world’s cultural center shifts eastward and Beijing’s international influence increases further, world arts have started to convene there. Beijing has become a huge international art gallery and a platform for arts from all over the world to exchange and come into being. A large number of international top performance teams and artists have begun to convene in Beijing. Literary and artistic works, such as the closing ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games have begun to take shape and mature and Beijing is advancing to an oriental capital of the arts.
(2) Multicultural Integration
While popularizing the Olympic spirit and games in a larger range, the Olympic Games vigorously promotes the exchange and integration between different cultures. As a host city of the Olympic Games, Beijing’s culture is now more open and the cultural differences of the world were respected to the largest degree. Athletes from a record 204 countries and regions participated in the Beijing Olympic Games. No matter what their nationality, ethnicity, religion, complexion or political stance is, each athlete and guest was treated with the highest level of courtesy and Beijing warmly welcomed the world with its wide, inclusive embrace. As the theme “One World, One Dream” goes, the Beijing Olympic Games really became a grand human ceremony of any race, any culture, any region, any religion, any political stance and any ideology. It promoted the exchange, dialogue, and communication of various national cultures from across the world. On such a historic stage with such diverse cultures, Beijing was able to create a new start for multiculturalism through creativity, dialogue, harmony and co-prosperity. Beijing showed a new presence of openness and inclusiveness that further demonstrated its confidence and progress.
(3) Protection of Historic and Cultural Heritage
Beijing boasts, for its over 3,000-year city construction history, an over 800-year old capital founding history, 6 world cultural heritages and 3,500 historical relics, all of which present China’s well-developed national and historical culture, and the indispensable precious wealth of urban development for its construction into world city. Since Beijing won the bidding for hosting the Olympic Games, in order to protect the historical and cultural heritages of Beijing to the greatest extent, fully develop the profound culture of Beijing and completely and adequately show the presence of the ancient capital in harmony with its historical culture and modern buildings,   Beijing officially approved and implemented “humanistic Olympics” relics protection projects throughout the city in 2002. By 2007, it had completed 139 repair and protection works in culturally protected sites, including the palaces and imperial parks, noble mansions, altars, temples and Taoist abbeys, celebrities’ former homes, as well as accomplished renovation, repair, protection, planning, relocation, and comprehensive ecological improvement for the following sites, ruins and ancient structures: the periphery of the Imperial Palace, the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests in the Temple of Heaven, the architectural complex of the Office Of Divine Music,entities west of the Summer Palace, the periphery of Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian, 18 places of the Great Wall, the Ming Tombs, as well as the Old Summer Palace, the Emperor's Temple of generations, Pudu Temple, the God Shrine in the Temple of Agriculture, Dongyue Temple, the Temple of Heaven and the Temple of the Moon. The environment near the “two lines” was improved and the presence of the Central Line was recovered. Further, the traditional landscapes of Beijing as an ancient capital were reproduced, including reconstructing the landmark architecture — from the Gate Tower on the Yongding Men south to the Central Line and improving the landmark architecture — Bell Drum Tower’s periphery, north to the Central Line and thoroughly renovating the historical sites and regions around the Central Line. Through the protection and renovation of the ancient capital, Beijing effectively improved the scenes around the “two lines”, recovered the presence of the five areas, and reproduced the six scenes around Beijing. Taking the Olympic Games as an opportunity, Beijing made historical progress in its cultural protection and the historical protection within the city, thereby promoting and enhancing the overall level of historical and cultural development, and comprehensively boosting the charm of Beijing as an ancient capital.
(4) Urban Management Efficiency
As large international matches and events, the Olympic projects were large, complex and numerous, so they lodged a very high requirement of organization and management. The successful bidding for the 2008 Olympic Games could not have come true without the all-around support from the country and governments at various levels, and the Games were given increased benefit thanks to the high levels of operation, organization, and management. The event organizer effectively completed the complex preparations and provided high-quality facilities, services and operations, and offered to the world an incomparable Olympic Games. The Olympic Games not only provided Beijing with an opportunity to carry out urban construction and cultural exhibition on an unprecedented scale, but brought about a profound reform of concepts and patterns in urban management. The Games brought about outstanding achievements to Beijing in terms of management concepts and levels, civil servant quality, security, traffic, the improvement of policies, laws and regulations, crisis handling and coping, urban planning and management, as well as provided abundant management heritages for its urban development and construction.
(5) Match Organization and Management
The distinguished organization and management for the Beijing Olympic matches undoubtedly accepted wide acclaim from all walks of life. During the Olympic Games, dedicated Olympic paths were opened; the odd-and-even license plate rule was implemented; and the urban bus and rail transit systems and intelligent traffic command systems were improved, so as to ensure smooth traffic. Scientific, normative, and effective management measures were implemented in the Olympic stadiums and gyms, people and vehicular evacuation mechanisms were formulated to guarantee proper order in the Olympic stadiums and gyms, the grandiose and wonderful Olympic opening and closing ceremonies exhibited the Chinese civilization with a history of 5,000 years to the world, while displaying the high-level capabilities for organization and coordination, and accumulated valuable experience and management heritages for hosting large cultural events in Beijing. Ranging from the construction of the Olympic stadiums and gyms, to the matching of varied facilities and the issuance of all types of management measures,from the surveying and formulation of plans,to the test and drill of “Good Luck, Beijing”, and from the construction of management information platforms to ongoing improvements of each technology, criterion and quality, all included made an active contribution for Beijing to provide efficient operations and services to the Olympic stadiums and gyms, and offered an excellent opportunity and precious experience for Beijing to enhance its urban management standards.
(6) Civil Servant Quality and Administrative Efficiency
Civil servant quality and administrative efficiency basically reflect the management level of a city. Taking the Olympic Games as an opportunity, Beijing, with an objective to cultivate civil servants with modern management levels and international vision, strengthened the training for civil servants in governments of various levels and enhanced their professional skills, service awareness, moral quality, and foreign language level, thereby greatly boosting the management level of civil servants in Beijing. Meanwhile, with an objective to establish an efficient and uncorrupted government, Beijing strengthened the institutional construction to raise the institutionalization and normalization levels in all work, advance the construction of information services handling official business, improve information management systems of varied types, strengthen the adjustment of organizations, entities, and institutions, and optimize the administrative flow, thereby effectively boosting the administrative efficiency of the government. On the other hand, public service levels reflect the civilization degree of a city. Through the preparation and hosting of the Olympic Games, over one million people from 11 trades, including tourism, post, business and hotel were trained with a rate of 93% on the aspects of Olympic knowledge, professional ethics, service etiquettes, service skills, and guiding foreigners, thereby greatly enhancing the overall service quality and levels. Any metropolis with large international influence has a high-quality civil servant system, administrative efficiency and public service. Beijing greatly improved certain aspects to lay the foundation for a world city.
(7) Security and Crisis Response
The safety of the Olympic Games could be ranked number one in the world. One million residents, volunteers, soldiers, and policemen built the most tightly organized “line of defense” in order to keep the Olympic Games perfectly safe and implemented great care in considering and preparing anti-terrorist measures. As the slogan “Safe and Wonderful” goes, a “safe Olympic Games” was the best blessing given by the world to the Beijing Olympics and was a sign of the success of the Olympic Games. Focusing on the safety of the Olympic Games, Beijing assembled the latest technological advancements from across the globe and provided perfect, all-around safe protection to the Games. During the Games, all administrative departments ranging from water, electricity and gas, to food, house, and traffic all became the organizers and administrative entities ensuring the safety of the Games. They made management plans and emergency plans, and issued related regulations for responding to emergencies. For example, consider the health emergency command system set up in Beijing, there weren’t just two special emergency plans for responding to emergency public health events and health care salvation in common emergency events, but an emergency plan involving 30 departments, each with their respective plans, responding to flu, food poisoning, plague, etc. Take field management as an example, a keen-witted and capable management team was established in every stadium and gym, and each type of group in the subdivided stadiums and gyms provided normative services accordingly. These teams were scientifically registered and divided. During matches, they worked by area, thus the careful project management and arrangements provided a support to the safe operation of the Olympic Games. During the Games, management measures and crisis response plans not only enabled a large number of high technologies and new products to be used, but such experiences, considered to be valuable management heritage, were integrated into Beijing’s urban construction and management, and will continue to exercise major function in future urban management.
(8) “Zhezi Project”
The “Zhezi Project” is a precious management experience summarized in the course of actively exploring the management mode of large events, which has become an important management tool for the city’s urban management and construction. The “Zhezi Project” attaches importance to the strengthening of organization and leadership, improving regulations and policies and implementing public participation mechanisms. Beijing has included the “Zhezi Project” into the annual work of the Party committees and governments on various levels, clarified their responsibilities, detailed the division of labor and focused on the organization and implementation of each task, thus the action project and the “Zhezi Project” were effectively implemented and completed. During the preparation for and hosting of the Olympic Games, Beijing issued and implemented theAction Project of the Humanistic Olympics, Action Project of the Green Olympics, Action Project of the High-Tech Olympics and Action Project of the Olympics Education in Beijing Schools. Through implementation of the above action projects and the “Zhezi Project”, Beijing hosted a high-level “people’s, high-tech, and green” Olympic Games. The “Zhezi Project” had the characteristics of clear tasks, responsibility implementations and strong executive force, so it became an important management means for Beijing’s urban management and construction. The Action Project of the People’s Beijing, the Action Project of a Green Beijing, and the Action Project of a High-Tech Beijing issued in 2009-2010 all carried forward and promoted the management experience of the “Zhezi Project”, which shows an important reference value for Beijing to use in the construction of a world city.
(II) Hard Heritage
Through bidding for and hosting the Olympic Games, Beijing’s hard power was improved and enhanced greatly. In terms of the construction of stadiums and gyms, environmental improvement, road traffic, protection of the ancient capital, increased data and information infrastructures, and scientific and technical strategies, Beijing has made remarkable achievements. The hard power heritage left by the Olympic Games has laid a solid foundation for Beijing to construct a world city with Chinese characteristics.
1. Stadiums and Gyms
A large number of high-level Olympic venues were completed in Beijing which greatly upgraded the infrastructures for sporting events, and thus Beijing has become one of the cities with one of the best sports infrastructures in the world.The construction of the Olympic venues has laid the foundation for holding large-scale sporting events and activities in Beijing, which also enhances the modernization and internationalization levels of the city. Olympic venues, such as the Bird’s Nest and the Water Cube, as well as the China National Grand Theatre and Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport that were built for the Olympic Games, became new international landmark buildings. Many Olympic venues are settled or adjacent to university campuses. At present, students from the nearby universities are utilizing the venues. Most Olympic cultural squares were preserved and are open to the public and became sport and fitness fields for residents. Olympic venues were effectively exploited and utilized after the sporting events, for example, the modified Water Cube was kept to function for international events and performances as before, but became an indoor, multifunctional sports and entertainment center, as previously designed, which provides services to visitors, including recreational watersports, sports, tourism, and retail shopping.
2. Road Traffic
Since Beijing won the right to stage the Olympic Games, the city has tried to improve its traffic environment, strengthened the planning and construction of road traffic, developed and improved intelligent traffic management system, concentrated on conquering the technical problems in constructing rapid transit railways, light railways and the metro, thereby making a modern three-dimensional traffic network system that extends in all directions. The four metro lines built for the Olympic Games continue to play an important role in the public transit system after the Games. The passenger flow of Beijing metro continues to increase. The growth in capacity of public transit both guarantees smooth traffic in Beijing and effectively protects the environment. Taking it as an opportunity, Beijing sticks to the principles of public welfare and the priority of developing public transit, and continuously improves the riding environment to provide fast, safe, convenient and comfortable service on public transit.
Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport is the largest single terminal in the world. After Terminal 3 came into service, in 2009, Beijing Capital International Airport became the largest airport in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. Terminal 3 adopted the internationally best, most advanced, automatic sorting and high-speed luggage conveyance system, which greatly reduces the amount of time that passengers must wait when picking up their luggage. The high-quality service and waiting conditions have won wide international reputation for Beijing. After the Fifth Ring, Sixth Ring, and several other highways in Beijing were completed and the roads in the urban areas were re-planned and improved, the traffic flow in Beijing reached a new level. The improved rail transit, airport construction, public transit system, ring highways and handicap-accessible facilities in Beijing greatly boost its construction and internationalization levels and laid a solid foundation for Beijing to become a world city.
3. Environmental Improvement
Since beginning the preparation for the Olympic Games, the environment in Beijing has improved significantly. In order to host the 2008 Olympic Games as a real “green Olympic Games”, Beijing further strengthened the awareness of environmental protection among the people, established and improved the environmental protection mechanism with public participation, and took a series of strict control and improvement measures that pushed urban sustainable development to a new level. By vigorously controlling the emissions of motorized vehicles, driving out yellow label cars, relocating and closing down polluting enterprises, implementing the “coal to electricity heating” project, optimizing waste water treatment, developing the public transit system, advocating green transit trips, and strengthening eco-environmental construction, the air quality in urban areas actually improved. In 2007, the air quality reached the standard for 246 days. During the past nine years, the treatment rate of domestic sewage has reached 92%, the recovery rate of rejuvenated water reached 50%, the separate waste collection rate increased from 0 in 2001 to 52%, the waste resource rate was 35% and the decontamination rate of urban refuse reached 97%. The change in public values, led by the “green Olympic Games”, strengthened public awareness of environmental protection and paved the way for its sustainable development. The public awareness of and participation in environmental protection is an abundant heritage left by the “green Olympic Games”. Concepts, such as green trips, green living, and green consumption, etc. enjoy popular support and have become an everlasting driving force for the improvement of environmental development.
4. Information Infrastructure Construction
The Olympic information infrastructure construction project improved the Beijing urban information system. During the preparations for the Beijing Olympic Games, key technological breakthroughs were made in the fields of mobile communication and comprehensive multilingual information services. All types of information infrastructures and information application systems were built to create a good information environment and the Beijing urban information service levels made great leaps forward in its development. In order to host a high-level of Olympic Games, Beijing formulated the Special Plan for the Digital Olympics, did a great deal of work according to the demands for Olympic data and information infrastructure, as well as urban information infrastructure construction, and implemented eight actions: the Olympics database project, a hi-tech digitalization management system, the real-time Olympics network project, the digital Olympics Village project, the Beijing Olympics card project, e-commerce actions, the golden shield project, and intelligent traffic systems. Information technology was widely used in the plan and design, organization and management, information distribution and relaying, was used to set up modern stereo communication systems, including satellite communication, system communication and fiber optic communication, and a high definition digital television relay system was installed.
Thanks to the above work, the Beijing information infrastructures were gradually improved, the overall work of the e-government’s affairs was conducted, information technology was widely used in varied fields, the information industry became the pillar of the city’s industries, and information regulation and standard work systems functioned perfectly. By 2008, Beijing had basically built a high-speed, large-capacity multi-media information network system of international standards, including an e-commerce system, e-government affairs system, e-finance system, as well as varied information network systems, ticket systems and related information service systems directly serving the Olympic Games. Thus, its management level and efficiency were enhanced greatly and the city information infrastructure reached the advanced international level. Taking the Games as an opportunity, Beijing remarkably raised the city’s level of modern information infrastructure, constructed improvements in the capital information infrastructures, and set up an advanced modern urban management platform, thereby providing solid information groundwork for Beijing to use in the construction of a world city.
5. Technological Content of the City
Driven by the concept of high-tech Olympics, the supporting capacity of technology has been enhanced for using in industrial development, urban construction, social management, ecological civilization, and the improvement of the people’s livelihood, which vigorously advanced Beijing’s economic and social sustainable development. Energy and water consumption and pollutant emission levels per ten thousand Yuan of GDP in Beijing and took the lead in the country. Great changes have taken place in the industrial structure and the new,high technology industry became an engine for its economic growth.In regard to urban construction, especially to the construction of Olympics venues, Beijing has actively spread new material and new building strategies, used building technologies, including information technology, biometric identification technology, and green building materials to construct intelligent and environmentally friendly Olympic parks and venues of international standards.In terms of social management, the city has set up varied information management platforms of international standards, thereby greatly enhancing the management levels and work efficiency. Through the environmental protection strategy, it vigorously developed new gas and electric vehicles, energetically developed clean energy technology, clean production technology, water pollution control technology, water regeneration and cycling technology, air pollution control technology, solid refuse hazard-free treatment and resource control technology, green biological technology, green energy resources, etc., and has greatly improved the ecological civilization and human habitat environment. It also adopted biomedicine technology, and food quality/safety monitoring technology, causing the food quality and safety to reach an advanced international level. Beijing has advanced the development of learning in the city and went deep into the popularization of science with scientific knowledge, scientific methods, scientific thoughts and scientific spirits spreading widely and causing scientific talents to emerge in large numbers.The society’s scientific quality was improved significantly thanks to the high-tech Olympics. The effective adjustment of the industrial structure and the great increase in the scientific content of social work has laid a firm foundation for Beijing to transform its economic growth pattern and construct a world city.
II. Planning and Management of Olympic Heritage and Advancement of World City Construction
As mentioned above, the 2008 Olympic Games left behind a rich and brilliant Olympic heritage in Beijing, which has not only greatly boosted the degree of Beijing’s urban civilization and increased its reputation in the world, but has also provided an everlasting source of motivation, as well as precious material and spiritual wealth for future urban development. As the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) Coordination Committee said, “Heritage won’t come into being on its own, and it requires careful plan and forward-looking management to harvest the fruits.” Therefore, if we want to successfully realize the docking and transformation of Beijing from an Olympic city to a world city, we need to carefully plan and manage the brilliant Olympic heritage, further promote and enrich the Olympic heritage, and integrate it into the concepts and soul of urban development so as to actually advance the great progress made in the construction of a world city.
The post-games utilization, planning, and management of Olympic venues have been a common problem for the Olympic Games’ host cities. The IOC advocates, at the beginning of bidding to host the Olympic Games, that the applicant must well-plan pertinent and feasible preparation and management of the Olympic heritage, emphasizes carefully integrating the Olympic heritage into organizations of the host city and region, thereby enabling the Olympic Games to really become a catalyst and force for urban construction and development. Needless to say, many host cities in the past have faced “Olympic low ebb”. After the Olympic Games came to an end, the urban development and economic growth slows down and has even retrograded. The 1976 Montreal Olympic Games were extravagant, but the host city bore a huge debt after the Games. After the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, the host city suffered from an economic decline and its venues were excessive. After the Athens Olympic Games, the financial burden restricted the sustainable development of the host city. After the Barcelona Olympic Games, the host city simply established a foundation, but lacked the planning and management for maintaining the Olympic heritage. The above examples caused us consider that it is extraordinarily valuable and significant to carefully plan and manage the Olympic heritage for the sustainable development of the host city.
Therefore, combining the universal laws of the Olympic cities and their development in the world, with the specific historical background of Beijing, through scientific research and experience it can be summarized that, starting with multiple aspects (including harmonization between world and nation, tradition and modernity, universality and particularity, material and spiritual forms, scientific and humanistic dimensions, and soft and hard power), that we should go deeper into discovering the inherent laws and characteristics of Beijing’s Olympic heritage management,systemically grasp the core links and key elements of docking and transforming an Olympic city into a world city, and continue actively exploring the “Beijing Mode” for Olympic heritage management, so that we can provide new experiences to the international Olympic Games while making contributions to urban development. Generally, in our opinion, planning and management of the Olympic heritage should include organization, long-term mechanisms, and relevant support.
(I) Special Heritage Management and Promotional Organizations
With the intention of carefully planning and managing the Olympic heritage, we should first establish special organizations and promotional organizations. The Beijing Olympic City Development Association (BOCDA) is an initial measure for the Beijing Government to extensively mobilize the social forces, uphold the Olympic spirit, and sufficiently carry on and give play to the abundant Olympic heritage. It is both a pioneering work in the history of the international Olympics and an important cooperating agency in realizing the transformation of an Olympic city into a world city. BOCDA is aimed to uphold the Olympic spirit, spread the Olympic fruits, promote the ongoing development of Olympic and Paralympic undertakings in the city, serve the “Humanistic Beijing, high-tech Beijing and green Beijing” (“3 Beijings”), and advance the construction of a world city and the international sports and cultural city of Beijing. BOCDA provides an organizational guarantee for the management and planning of the Olympic heritage and transformation from an Olympic city to a world city.
As a brand new organization, it shoulders the tasks of planning and managing the Olympic heritage, and because there is little experience to learn from, the BOCDA should continue to innovate in terms of institutional construction, the summarizing of laws, and team construction, etc. First, it should strengthen its institutional construction, establish and improve its work systems, responsibility and equity systems, and feedback and evaluation systems, and enhance the systemization and normalization levels of varied works, thus the management and promotion of the Olympic heritage can be orderly, normatively and effectively carried out. Second, we should summarize the inherent laws in the management and promotion of the Olympic heritage, adequately study and summarize the law, experience, plight and lessons learned in the development of other Olympic host cities. We should adopt others’ good points, avoid our shortcomings, and carefully discover the features, laws, and inherent requirements involved in the management of Beijing’s Olympic heritage by understanding the real situation. Third, we should strengthen the team construction of BOCDA, absorb some quality talents with expertise and international perspective, intensify the input and degree of personnel training, and create a high-quality team to lay a foundation allowing for work to be conducted smoothly.
(II)Systematic Explanation and Summarization of the Brilliant Olympic Heritage
The 2008 Olympic Games left rich spiritual and material heritages in Beijing. Systemic examination and summarization of the brilliant Olympic heritage is both a precondition for us to plan and manage the Olympic heritages and is significant to driving a new era of urban development. In general, the Olympic heritage includes hardware and software (as mentioned above)the upgrading of urban infrastructure and urban civilization, increased urban openness and internationalization levels, quality civil servants, and administrative efficiency, etc.. When summarizing and contributing to the brilliant Olympic heritage, we should not only sufficiently absorb the experience and specific forms of the successful events during the Games, but embrace the city spirit called for, triggered and built during the Games, and further enrich the concept and soul of urban development, so as to use them as a source and intellectual impetus for future development.
The Olympic heritage is not an established fact, but a constantly generating, changing and enriching dynamic process. The concept carried on by the Olympics and the spirit aroused by the Olympic heritage will be continually renewed and enriched in the process of urban development, and will keep injecting the activity of urban development. Therefore, we should continue to strengthen the examination and summarization of Olympic heritage in a deep and systemic manner, especially focusing on the unique values endowed by the times, so as to devote its spiritual force to the different periods of development, different construction objectives, and specific missions of the city.
(III) Long-Term Mechanism to Be Established and Improved in order to utilize the Olympic Heritage
The Olympic heritage is extraordinarily abundant. It is of great significance to uphold the Olympic heritage and sufficiently make use of the Olympic fruits for a new round of higher-level scientific development, The Olympic heritage and its fruits are important resources and a valuable wealth for Beijing in the construction of a world city. To pertinently implement and give play to the facilitation of the Olympic heritage and urban development, achieve the successful docking and transformation of Beijing from an Olympic city to a world city, we should establish and improve the long-term mechanism in order to utilize the Olympic heritage and proactively implement it into daily work in accordance with the spirit of the latest instructions given by the central government.
First, establish and improve a long-term organization and cooperating mechanism. The organization and the cooperating mechanism are directly related to whether or not the Olympic heritage can be carried on and adequately utilized. As a responsible organization for the management and utilization of the Olympic heritage, BODA is responsible for the direction, supervision, and cooperates in the planning and management of the Olympic heritage. BODA should strengthen the work system construction, unify thought,, ascertain direction, clarify the responsibilities, actively coordinate with related competent departments, establish a good cooperating mechanism, drive the planning and management of the Olympic heritage throughout the city, and promote the urban development of Beijing. We should further strengthen the platform construction of BODA, the Beijing Olympic City Development Center, and the Beijing Olympic City Development Foundation, mobilize and organize the social forces, absorb more social resources, carry on the Olympic spirit and the Beijing Olympic spirit, and make real contributions to the urban development of Beijing.
Second, establish and improve long-term propaganda and a guiding mechanism. We should continue to strengthen the propaganda of the Olympic heritage and its fruits, establish an improved propaganda guiding mechanism, as well as consolidate and further expand the influence of the Olympic fruits to urban development. First, based on the Olympic concepts, supported by a vast number of people, we should further set up an all-round communication network featuring “fast transmission, wide coverage, blended video and audio, strong guidance, vividness, and recognition” for the Olympic heritage. Through all types of propaganda materials, topic events, public service advertisements, model events, sample figures, as well as all sorts of media, including broadcasts, TV, newspapers and journals, networks and outdoor media, we can create an influential media environment to propagandize the rich Olympic heritages in an all-encompassing way. We should continue to strengthen the propaganda of the core concepts of “people’s, high-tech, and green”, advocate urban civilization and enrich the connotation of the city spirit. Second, we should vigorously conduct publicity and cooperation with the outside world by virtue of the influential brand effect brought on by the Beijing Olympic Games, actively participate in international Olympic affairs, set up the capital foreign exchange window, and further consolidate and expand the popularity and influence of Beijing throughout the world.
Third, to establish and improve a long-term event platform mechanism we should organize all kinds of high-level events and exchanges, which is not only a carrier for utilizing the Olympic heritage but a channel to shape the city brand. We should learn from the experiences and practices of Olympic Games host cities and give play to the overall effect of the Olympic heritage, continue to expand relationships with international sports organizations such as the IOC, and participate in varied meetings and events held by the IOC and world sports organizations.We should utilize the experience of organizing the Beijing Olympic Games and the hard facilities, actively bid for and host large international conferences, events and sports matches, focus on worldwide topics, and combine them with the situation in Beijing. We should launch and host worldwide or regional meetings and sports events ( depending on the Olympic heritage),continue to hold green trips, offer volunteer services, low-carbon lifestyles, true love knots and Olympic education, and advance the use of the Olympic heritage. We should create cultural events and brands with characteristics of Beijing, create a platform for high-level foreign sports and cultural exchanges, and hold branded projects in the Olympic city that the masses will be glad to participate in. Based on the objective of constructing a world city, we should proactively bid for all sorts of international sports events and cultural activities, and absorb all types of international organizations that may wish to settle in Beijing. Through the long-term event platform mechanism, we can enhance the soft power of the capital, further expand its international influence, and advance its construction into a world city.
Fourth, establish and improve a long-term scientific research mechanism. We should integrate the research forces of all walks of life and establish a long-term scientific research mechanism to conduct deep and systemic scientific research on the management of the Olympic heritage and the construction of a world city. First, we should deepen the understanding of working features and laws of the Olympic heritage and actively explore the management pattern of the Beijing Olympic heritage, so as to provide theoretical support for utilized the force of the Beijing Olympic heritage.Second, we should research the influence of the Olympic Games, track the utilization of the Olympic venues after sports events, timely summarize the reports, and propose opinions and suggestions.Third, we should carry out widespread special research on the construction of a world city, especially on how to adequately examine, carry on, and give play to the brilliant Olympic heritage, features of Beijing as a world city and component elements, universal laws in the construction of a world city, advantages and challenges for Beijing to construct a world city, research on key elements and experiences for the successful transformation from an Olympic city to a world city, and benchmark research on the experiences and lessons learned in the construction of other world cities, thereby providing theoretical guidance and intelligent support for Beijing’s construction into a world city.
Fifth, establish and improve a long-term supervision and implementation mechanism. We should ensure that all work on the management and utilization of the Olympic heritage is put into practice and has real effects. To realize the objective depends on establishing a supervision and implementation mechanism. We should improve and perfect regulations and rules in all work, such as leadership responsibility, supervision and checks, tracking problems and effects, assessment and evaluation, etc., and we should supervise and urge all related personnel to solve outstanding problems and difficulties that affect and restrict the management and utilization of the Olympic heritage. We should detail the objectives and main tasks in the management of the Olympic heritage, formulate a corresponding assessment indicator system, study and make concrete evaluation and assessment methods, and urge all work to be implemented. We should improve the rules and regulations in use at all capitals, insist on the principles of non-corruption, openness and transparency in the use of capitals, and strictly carry out capital budgets approval and use so as to ensure the capitals are reasonably planned, managed normatively and used scientifically/efficiently. 
III. “Three concepts of Beijing”: Foundation and Start of Construction of World City
To achieve the transformation from an Olympic city to a world city with Chinese characteristics we should have a clear knowledge and understanding of the logical relationship between the “three Olympics’”, the “three concepts of Beijing”, and the “world city”. In general, the “three concepts of Beijing” is a succession and innovation of the “three Olympics’”, the “world city” is the objective and direction of the “three concepts of Beijing”, while the “three concepts of Beijing” is the start and way of construction of the “world city”. The real promotion of the developmental concept of “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing and Green Beijing” starts the new chapter of its construction into a world city with Chinese characteristics.
(I) From “Three Olympics’” to “Three Concepts of Beijing”
As an incomparable Olympic Games, the 2008 Olympic Games won Beijing wide acclaim from the world, greatly enhanced the modernization and internationalization levels of Beijing, and provided an unprecedented historic opportunity into the great development of Beijing city. Taking it as an opportunity, the Beijing Municipal CPC Committee has changed the three concepts of “Humanistic Olympics, High-tech Olympics and Green Olympics” from the 2008 Olympic Games to the new concepts of “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing and Green Beijing”, and takes it as a spiritual guide for its urban development and practical activities. This is an important strategic decision, gives great significance, and provides the motivation to keep going. It is not only a summarization and inheritance of the Olympic heritage, but an active exploration and an innovation for future development patterns.
“Humanistic Olympics, High-Tech Olympics and Green Olympics” provided Beijing with the most fundamental concept base and a motivational source for hosting a successful Olympic Games. The three concepts “People’s, High-Tech and Green” enjoyed popular support and were unique contributions made by the Beijing Olympic Games to the Olympic Movement. Guided by the “Three Olympics’” spirit, Beijing not only successfully held a unique and high-level Olympic Games, but brought about immeasurable influence to the urban development of the whole city. Through practicing “Three Olympics’”, Beijing was left with rich hard and soft heritages, which laid a solid foundation for Beijing to construct a world city with Chinese characteristics. First, the supply of public goods was effectively improved, namely the public service level was boosted effectively, public service facilities were improved further, and the public service coverage was expanded remarkably.Second, the urban civilization was enhanced further, namely the residents’ ideological and ethical standards, cultural and scientific qualities, their physical and psychological health were enhanced significantly, and the degree of civilization, in terms of public environment, behaviors, order, and social morals, improved further.Third, the city’s cultural charm was manifested further, historical and cultural heritages were further protected, public cultural service systems and the city’s cultural facilities were effectively improved, and residents’ cultural life was enriched.Fourth, international influence was highlighted, the city’s degree of modernization was raised, the degree of opening up to the outside world was increased, the field of international exchange and cooperation was widened, and the international influence and internationalization levels were enhanced significantly. “Three Olympics’” to “three concepts of Beijing” is a conceptual transformation full of logical sense; it is the start of a new concept with cultural conscientious and urban civilization; the historical choice of practicing the scientific development perspective; upgrading the inherent spirit of the city and constructing the society of the capital. Any society and age have their own core value systems, which reflect the people’s common dream and common dimensions. The city character and soul, which should be shaped by the “three concepts of Beijing”, is the embodiment of a socialist system of core values in the capital, while its inherent spirit reflects the social dream that the people yearn for and seek. The degree of urban development, which the dream is leaning towards, should be a harmonious scene of caring for people, protecting people, cherishing the beauty of life, respecting people’s basic rights, and keeping the close relationships between humans, humans and society, and humans and nature. The transformation from “Three Olympics’” to “three concepts of Beijing” is both closely related to the inherent logic of urban development, and starts a new concept for urban development that points out the direction of its future development.
(II) Strategic Value of “Three Concepts of Beijing”
The “Three concepts of Beijing” is a new idea to be used in the capital to practice the scientific outlook on development and the advance of Beijing’s evolution, which will push the new round of scientific development in the capital to a higher level.“People first” scientific innovation and ecological civilization has become the focus of the city’s urban development, and will certainly open up a new situation for its economy, culture, politics, society and ecological civilization, pushing Beijing to develop in an overall, harmonious and sustainable manner, and laying a solid foundation for constructing the capital into a prosperous, civilized, harmonious and livable one, and to build a world city with Chinese characteristics and international influence.
The overall construction of the “Humanistic Beijing” means implementing the requirement of “people first” for all work in the capital, respecting the people’s principal position, giving play to the people’s pioneering spirit, and really pursuing a people-oriented approach toward development: for the people, by the people and for the benefit of the people; actually safeguarding the economic, political, cultural and social interests and rights to improve the people’s livelihood; continuously improving residents’ ideological and ethical standards, cultural and scientific qualities and health quality to boost the city’s degree of civilization; going deep into examining the rich cultural resources of the capital and vigorously develop cultural undertakings and industry to promote its cultural prosperity; properly coordinating the interest relationship of all sides, advancing the equalization of social and public services, and setting up a harmonious and livable city. The construction of a “High-Tech Beijing” means enabling Beijing to be a major innovative city, becoming the trade center of technological fruits, increasing its capacity for innovation in order to take the lead among its domestic counterparts, enabling its scientific innovation to become the central linkage of structural adjustment, constructing Zhongguancun into a national self-innovative demonstration area and greatly enhancing its self-innovative capacity; through energetically implementing the “revitalizing industries through science and technology” project, accelerating the development of high-tech industry and promoting the upgrade and optimization of the industrial structure; through the construction of enterprise technology innovative capacity, improving enterprise technology innovative service platforms to strengthen the comprehensive competition of enterprises, so as to raise the service level of livelihood technology in the fields of urban development, social management, education and culture, health care, public security, ecological civilization, and new countryside construction. The construction of “Green Beijing” means building a resource saving and environmentally friendly society with the objective of sustainable development based on strong resources and environmental bearing capacity and with the natural law as the principle, vigorously creating a green production system and actively establishing a green consumption system, improving the green environment system, to construct Beijing into a green modern world city with clean production, friendly consumption, fine environment and efficient resource utilization.
“Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing and Green Beijing” starts a new concept in Beijing’s urban construction and development, are the organic whole of scientific development, have an important guiding meaning for Beijing’s urban development, and lay a conceptual basis for its sustainable development and construction into a world city.
(III) “Three Concepts of Beijing” and World City
World city is the high-end form of international city, and is a central city with global influence and a controlling force in international politics, economics and cultural life. The proposal to construct Beijing into a world city with Chinese characteristics is an important strategic choice for Beijing to go with the historical tide, master the development opportunity and pursue a higher level of development. The construction of a world city with Chinese characteristics is involved on many sides, vast and arduous, so it needs a clear, unified thought and development concept. The establishment of the “Humanistic Beijing, High-tech Beijing and Green Beijing” as the concept of Beijing’s urban development aims at becoming a “world city” and vigorously advances the overall sustainable and coordinative development of Beijing. “Three concepts of Beijing” and “world city” have a close inherent logical relationship: a world city with Chinese characteristics is the ultimate goal of “three concepts of Beijing”, while “three concepts of Beijings” is the basis and way of constructing a world city with Chinese characteristics. Furthermore, a world city with Chinese characteristics both points to a direction for the development of “three concepts of Beijing”, and the realization of a world city with Chinese characteristics is the outcome of really implementing “three concepts of Beijing”. On the other hand, “three concepts of Beijing” launches a new start for Beijing in the construction of a world city with Chinese characteristics, an important way to realize a world city with Chinese characteristics and lays a foundation for Beijing to construct a world city with Chinese characteristics.

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